What is the Bill of Rights?
This Bill of Rights is a summary of your rights and does not become a part of your policy. The Texas Department of Insurance (TDI) adopted the Bill of Rights and requires insurance companies to provide you a copy when they issue your policy.
Texas law gives you certain rights regarding your automobile insurance. This Bill of Rights identifies your rights specified by rule or by state statute, but it does not include all your rights. Also, some exceptions to the rights are not listed here. If your agent, company, or adjuster tells you that one of these rights does not apply to you, contact TDI Consumer Protection at 1-800-252-3439 (512-463-6515 in Austin) (111-1A), P.O. Box 149091, Austin, TX 78714-9091. For a list of the specific law(s) and/or rule(s) summarized in each item of this Bill of Rights, or if you have questions or comments, contact the Office of Public Insurance Counsel at 333 Guadalupe, Suite 3-120, Austin, TX 78701 (512-322-4143) or www.opic.state.tx.us.
This Bill of Rights does not address your responsibilities. Your responsibilities concerning your insurance can be found in your policy. Failure to meet your obligations may affect your rights.
Getting Information from the Department of Insurance and Your Insurance Company
1. INFORMATION FROM TDI. You have the right to call TDI free of charge at 1-800-252-3439 or 512-463-6515 in Austin to learn more about:
- your rights as an insurance consumer;
- the license status of an insurance company or agent;
- the financial condition of an insurance company;
- the complaint ratio and type of consumer complaints filed against an insurance company;
- use of credit information by insurance companies, including which insurance companies use it and access to each company’s credit scoring model;
- an insurance company’s rates filed with the state;
- an insurance company’s underwriting guidelines (subject to exemptions in the Public Information Act, also known as the Open Records Act);
- the Market Assistance Program (MAP) at 1-888-799-MAPP (6277), designed to help those in underserved areas obtain liability insurance; and
- other consumer concerns.
You can also find some of this information on the TDI website at www.tdi.texas.gov.
2. INFORMATION FROM YOUR INSURANCE COMPANY. You have the right to a toll-free number to call your insurance company free of charge with questions or complaints. You can find this number on a notice accompanying your policy. This requirement does not apply to small insurance companies.
What you should know before you buy insurance
3. PROHIBITED STATEMENTS. Your insurance company or agent is prohibited from making false, misleading, or deceptive statements to you relating to insurance.
4. EXCESS LIMITS. An insurer or agent cannot require you to purchase liability limits greater than the limits required by law (20/40/15) or require you to purchase other types of coverage as a condition of offering insurance or continued insurance to you.
NOTE: Texas law requires that automobile insurance policies include personal injury protection (PIP) and uninsured motorist protection (UM/UIM) unless you reject these coverages in writing. Also, as a condition of your automobile loan, your lender may require you to purchase other types of coverage, such as collision or comprehensive coverage, to pay for any damage to your vehicle.
5. CREDIT INFORMATION. An insurance company cannot deny you insurance solely on the basis of credit information. Insurers who use credit information must also consider other underwriting factors independent of credit information when deciding whether to offer coverage. (For additional information see the section of this Bill of Rights entitled What you should know about insurance companies’ use of credit information.)
6. SAFETY NET. You have the right to buy minimum liability, personal injury protection, and uninsured motorist insurance through the Texas Automobile Insurance Plan Association, also known as TAIPA, if you have been denied coverage by two insurance companies.
NOTE: After 3 consecutive years with no at-fault accidents or traffic violations, you have the right to be insured by your assigned company as a regular policyholder at a rate lower than the TAIPA rate. The company must provide you this offer in writing.
7. PAYMENT PLANS. You have the right to pay your automobile insurance premium in installments. Insurance companies may charge a fee for each installment. Your initial down payment cannot exceed the cost of two months’ coverage. For a 12-month policy, you have the right to pay the balance in at least ten equal monthly installments. For a six-month policy, you have the right to pay the balance in at least four equal monthly installments.
NOTE: You may be offered an installment loan through a premium finance company. These companies offer high-interest loans with fees and obligations that may be beyond those included in installment plans offered directly by insurance companies.
8. ELECTRONIC PAYMENTS. If you authorize your insurer to withdraw your premium payments directly from your financial institution, your insurer cannot increase the amount withdrawn unless:
- the insurer notifies you of the premium increase at least 30 days prior to its effective date and provides a postage paid form you can use to object to the increase; and
- you do not notify the insurer or financial institution that you object to the increase at least 5 days prior to the increase.
This does not apply to premium increases specifically scheduled in the original policy, to increases based on policy changes you request, or to an increase that is less than $10 or 10% of the previous month’s payment.
9. NOTICE OF REDUCED COVERAGE. If an insurer uses an endorsement to reduce the amount of coverage provided by your policy, the insurer must give you a written explanation of the change made by the endorsement. The insurer must provide the explanation before the effective date of the new or renewal policy. An insurance company cannot reduce coverage during the policy period unless you request the change. If you request the change, the company is not required to provide notice.
10. EXPLANATION OF DENIAL. Upon request, you have the right to be told in writing why you have been denied coverage. The written statement must fully explain the decision, including the precise incidents, circumstances, or risk factors that disqualified you. It must also state the sources of information used.
NOTE: The obligation to provide a written explanation applies to insurance companies directly. An independent agent does not have a specific duty to quote the lowest possible rate to a consumer or to provide a written statement explaining why the agent did not offer the consumer the lowest possible rate.
11. RATE DIFFERENTIAL WITHIN A COUNTY. If an insurance company subdivides a county for the purpose of charging different rates for each subdivision, the difference between the lowest and the highest rate cannot exceed 15% unless actuarially justified.
12. RIGHT TO PRIVACY. You have the right to prevent an insurance company, agent, adjuster or financial institution from disclosing your personal financial information to companies that are not affiliated with the insurance company or financial institution. Some examples are income, social security number, credit history and premium payment history.
If you apply for a policy, the insurance company or financial institution must notify you if it intends to share financial information about you and give you at least 30 days to refuse. This refusal is called “opting out.” If you buy a policy, the insurance company or financial institution must tell you what information it collects about you and whether it intends to share any of the information, and give you at least 30 days to opt out. Agents and adjusters who intend to share your information with anyone other than the insurance company or financial institution must give you similar notices.
You can opt out at any time. Your decision to opt out remains in effect unless you revoke it.
These protections do not apply to information:
- publicly available elsewhere;
- insurance companies or financial institutions are required by law to disclose; or
- insurance companies or financial institutions must share in order to conduct ordinary business activities.
What you should know about cancellation and nonrenewal
Cancellation means that before the end of the policy period the insurance company:
- terminates the policy;
- reduces or restricts coverage under the policy; or
- refuses to provide additional coverage to which you are entitled under the policy.
Refusal to renew and non-renewal mean the policy terminates at the end of the policy period.
The policy period is shown on the declarations page at the front of your policy.
13. LIMITATION ON CANCELLATION. After your initial policy with your company has been in effect for 60 days, that insurance company cannot cancel your policy unless:
- you don’t pay your premium when due;
- you file a fraudulent claim;
- your driver’s license or car registration is revoked or suspended;
- the driver’s license of any household resident or person who customarily drives a covered auto is suspended or revoked. If you agree to exclude coverage for that person, the insurance company cannot cancel your policy for this reason; or
- TDI determines continuation of the policy would result in violation of insurance laws.
14. NOTICE OF CANCELLATION. To cancel your policy, your insurance company must mail notice at least 10 days prior to cancellation. Your policy may provide for even greater notice.
15. POLICYHOLDER’S RIGHT TO CANCEL. You have the right to cancel your policy at any time and receive a refund of the remaining premium. The refund will be paid to you unless your premium was financed through a premium finance company. In that case, the refund will be paid to the premium finance company to reduce the amount you owe on your loan.
16. CHANGE IN MARITAL STATUS. If your marital status changes, you have the right to continue your insurance coverage. You have a right to a new policy in your name that has coverages which most nearly approximate the coverages of your prior policy, including the same expiration date. The insurance company cannot date the new policy so that a gap in coverage occurs.
17. NOT-AT-FAULT CLAIMS. Your insurance company cannot refuse to renew your policy solely because of any of the following types of claims:
- claims involving damage from a weather-related incident that does not involve a collision, like damage from hail, wind or flood;
- accidents or claims involving damage by contact with animals or fowls;
- accidents or claims involving damage caused by flying gravel or flying objects; however, if you have three of these claims in a three year period, the insurance company may raise your deductible on your next renewal date;
- towing and labor claims; however, once you have made four of these claims in a three year period, the company may eliminate this coverage from your policy on your next renewal date; and
- any other accident or claim that was not your fault unless you have two or more of these claims or accidents in a one year period.
18. USE OF AGE TO NONRENEW. Your insurance company cannot refuse to renew your policy based solely on the age of any person covered by the policy. This includes placing you in a higher priced company or requiring a named driver exclusion for a teenager who reaches driving age.
19. USE OF CREDIT INFORMATION TO NONRENEW. An insurance company cannot refuse to renew your policy solely on the basis of credit information. Insurers who use credit information must also consider other underwriting factors independent of credit information when deciding whether to renew coverage. (For additional information see the section of this Bill of Rights entitled What you should know about insurance companies’ use of credit information.)
20. LENGTH OF POLICY TERM. If the term of your insurance policy is less than one year, your insurance company must renew that policy until it has been in effect for one year. Your insurance company may only refuse to renew your policy effective on the anniversary of the policy’s original effective date. For instance, if your policy was originally effective on January 1, Year 1, the insurance company must renew your policy to provide coverage until January 1, Year 2, and thereafter, may only refuse to renew your policy effective January 1 of any subsequent year.
21. NOTICE OF NONRENEWAL. If the insurance company does not mail you notice of non-renewal at least 30 days before your policy expires, you have the right to require the insurance company to renew your policy.
22. EXPLANATION OF CANCELLATION OR NONRENEWAL. Upon request, you have the right to a written explanation of an insurance company’s decision to cancel or non-renew your policy. The written statement must fully explain the decision, including the precise incidents, circumstances, or risk factors that disqualified you. It must also state the sources of information used.
What you should know when you file a claim
23. FAIR TREATMENT. You have the right to be treated fairly and honestly when you make a claim. If you believe an insurance company has treated you unfairly, call the Department of Insurance at 1-800-252-3439 (512-463-6515 in Austin ) or download a complaint form from the TDI website at www.tdi.texas.gov. You can complete a complaint form on-line via the Internet or fax it to TDI at 512-475-1771.
24. SETTLEMENT OFFER. You have the right to reject any settlement amount, including any unfair valuation, offered by the insurance company.
25. EXPLANATION OF CLAIM DENIAL. Your insurance company must tell you in writing why your claim or part of your claim was denied.
26. IMEFRAMES FOR CLAIM PROCESSING AND PAYMENT. When you file a claim on your own policy, you have the right to have your claim processed and paid promptly. If the insurance company fails to meet required claims processing and payment deadlines, you have the right to collect 18% annual interest and attorney’s fees in addition to your claim amount.
Generally, within 15 calendar days, your insurance company must acknowledge receipt of your claim and request any additional information reasonably related to your claim. Within 15 business days after receipt of all requested information, the company must approve or deny your claim in writing. The law allows the insurance company to extend this deadline up to 45 days if it notifies you that more time is needed and tells you why.
After notifying you that your claim is approved, your insurance company must pay the claim within 5 business days.
If your claim results from a weather-related catastrophe or other major natural disaster as defined by TDI, your insurance company may take 45 additional days to approve or deny your claim and 15 additional days to pay your claim.
27. CHOICE OF REPAIR SHOP AND REPLACEMENT PARTS. You have the right to choose the repair shop and replacement parts for your vehicle. An insurance company may not specify the brand, type, kind, age, vendor, supplier, or condition of parts or products used to repair your automobile. The insurance company must provide you notice of the above requirements as follows:
- claims submitted by telephone – written notice within 3 business days or immediate verbal notice, followed by written notice within 15 days;
- claims submitted in person – immediate written notice at the time you present your vehicle to an insurer or an insurance adjuster or other person in connection with a claim for damage repair;
- claims submitted in writing – written notice must be provided within 3 business days of the insurance company’s receipt of the notice.
28. DEDUCTIBLE RECOVERY. If another person is liable for damage to your auto and you filed a claim and paid a deductible on your own policy, your insurance company must make a reasonable and diligent effort to recover the deductible from that person within twelve months from the date your claim is paid. If not, your company must:
- authorize you, at least 90 days prior to the expiration of the statute of limitations, to pursue your own collection efforts, or
- refund your deductible.
29. NOTICE OF LIABILITY CLAIM SETTLEMENT. Your insurance company must notify you if it intends to pay a liability claim against your policy. The company must notify you in writing of an initial offer to compromise or settle a claim against you no later than the 10th day after the date the offer is made. The company must notify you in writing of any settlement of a claim against you no later than the 30th day after the date of the settlement.
30. INFORMATION NOT REQUIRED FOR CLAIM PROCESSING. You have the right to refuse to provide your insurance company with information that does not relate to your claim. In addition, you may refuse to provide your federal income tax records unless your insurer gets a court order or your claim involves lost income or a fire loss.
What you should know about prohibited discrimination
31. PROTECTED CLASSES. An insurance company cannot discriminate against you by refusing to insure you; limiting the amount, extent or kind of coverage available to you; charging you a different rate for the same coverage; or refusing to renew your policy:
- because of race, color, religion, or national origin; or
- unless justified by actual or anticipated loss experience, because of age, gender, marital status, geographic location, or disability or partial disability.
32. UNDERWRITING GUIDELINES. Underwriting guidelines may not be unfairly discriminatory and must be based on sound actuarial principles.
33. EQUAL TREATMENT. Unless based on sound actuarial principles, an insurance company may not treat you differently from other individuals of the same class and essentially the same hazard. If you sustain economic damages as a result of such unfair discrimination, you have the right to sue that insurance company in Travis County District Court.
If your suit prevails, you may recover economic damages, court costs and attorney and necessary expert witness fees. If the court finds the insurance company knowingly violated your rights, it may award up to an additional $25,000 per claimant.
You must bring the suit on or before the second anniversary of the date you were denied insurance or the unfair act occurred or the date you reasonably should have discovered the occurrence of the unfair act. If the court determines your suit was groundless and you brought the lawsuit in bad faith, or brought it for the purposes of harassment, you will be required to pay the insurance company’s court costs and attorney fees.
What you should know about insurance companies’ use of credit information
34. REQUIRED DISCLOSURE. If an insurance company uses credit information to make underwriting or rating decisions, the company must provide you a disclosure statement within 10 days after receiving your completed application for insurance.
The disclosure indicates whether the insurer will obtain and use your credit information and lists your specific legal rights, including:
- credit information insurance companies cannot use against you;
- how you can get reasonable exceptions that your insurer is required to make to its use of credit information if certain life events, such as divorce, death of a close family member, or identity theft, hurt your credit;
- the notice* an insurer must send you when making a credit-based decision that harms your ability to get or keep insurance or requires you to pay a higher premium; and
- how you can dispute credit information and require an insurer to re-rate your policy if the rate was increased because of inaccurate or unverifiable credit information.
* The notice must include a description of up to four primary factors that influenced the action taken by the insurer. Generalized terms such as “poor credit rating” are not sufficient.
Insurers must use the disclosure form (CD-1) adopted by the Commissioner or an equivalent disclosure form filed prior to use with TDI. The CD-1 is available at www.tdi.texas.gov/forms/pcpersonal/pc328crdtds.pdf or by calling 1-800-252-3439. Additional information regarding insurers’ use of credit information is available at www.tdi.state.tx.us/credit/index.html.
What you should know about enforcing your rights
35. FILING COMPLAINTS. You have the right to complain to TDI about any insurance company and/or insurance matter and to receive a prompt investigation and response to your complaint. To do so, you should:
- call TDI’s Consumer Help Line at 1-800-252-3439, in Austin 463-6515 for service in both English and Spanish;
- write to the Texas Department of Insurance, Consumer Protection (111-1A), P.O. Box 149091, Austin, Texas 78714-9091;
- e-mail TDI at ConsumerProtection@tdi.state.tx.us;
- fax your complaint to 512-475-1771;
- download or complete a complaint form on line from the TDI website at http://www.tdi.state.tx.us; or
- call the TDI Publications/Complaint Form order line (24 hours) at 1-800-599-SHOP (7467), in Austin 512-305-7211.
NOTE: TDI offers interpreter services and publications in alternate formats. Persons needing more information in alternate layouts or languages can call the TDI Consumer Help Line listed above.
36. RIGHT TO SUE. If an insurance company violates your rights, you may be able to sue that company in court, including small claims court, with or without an attorney.
37. BURDEN OF PROOF. If you sue to recover under your insurance policy, the insurance company has the burden of proof as to any application of an exclusion in the policy and any exception to or other avoidance of coverage claimed by the insurer.
38. REQUESTING NEW RULES. You have the right to ask in writing that TDI make or change rules on any automobile insurance issue that concerns you. Send your written request to: Texas Department of Insurance, Attn: Commissioner (113-2A), P.O. Box 149104, Austin, TX 78714-9104.
For more information, contact: ChiefClerk@tdi.texas.gov